'The Spirit of the Laws' by Charles Montesquieu (1748)

"Hobbes inquire, 'For what reason go men armed, and have locks and keys to fasten their doors, if they be not naturally in a state of war?' But is it not obvious that he attributes to mankind before the establishment of society what can happen but in consequence of this establishment, which furnishes them with motives for hostile attacks and self-defence?
[...] Fear... would induce men to shun one another; but the marks of this fear being reciprical, would soon engage them to associate. Besides, this association would quickly follow from the very pleasure one animal feels at the approach of another of the same species. Again, the attraction arising from the difference of sexes would enhance this pleasure."

"Honour, that is, the prejudice of every person and rank, supplies the place of... political virtue... , and is everywhere here representative: here [in Monarchical Governments] it is capable of inspiring the most glorious actions... ."

"A monarchical government supposes... pre-eminences and ranks, as likewise a noble descent. Now since it is the nature of honour to aspire to preferments and titles, it is properly placed in this government
Ambition is pernicious in a republic. But in a monarchy it has some good effects; it gives life to the government, and is attended with this advantage, that it is in no way dangerous, because it may be continually checked.
It is with this kind of government as with the system of the universe, in whcih there is a power that constantly repels all bodies from the centre, and a power of gravitation that attracts them to it. Honour sets all the parts of the body politic in motion, and by its very action connects them; thus each individual advances the public good, which he only thinks of promoting his own interest.
True it is that, philosophically speaking, it is a false honour which moves all the parts of the government; but even this false honour is as useful to the public as true honour could possiblybe to private persons.
Is it not very exacting to oblige men to perform the most difficult actions, such as require an extraordinary exertion of fortitude and resolution, without other recompense than that of glory and applause?"

"It is pride that renders us polite; we are flattered with being taken notice of for behaviour that shows we are not of a mean condition, and that we have not been bred with those who in all ages are considered the scum of the people."

"Now a government is like everything else: to preserve it we must love it."

"In monarchies there should be no censors; the former are founded on honour, and the nature of honour is to have the whole world for its censor. Every man who fails in this article is subject to the reproaches even of those who are void of honour."

"The severity of punishments is fitter for despotic governments, whose principle is terror, than for a monarchy or a republic, whose spring is honour and virtue.
In moderate governements, the love of one's country, shame, and the fear of blame are restraining motives, capable of preventing a multitude of crimes."

"It is a constant remark of the Chinese authors that the more the penal laws were increased in their empire, the nearer they drew towards a revolution."

"Mankind must not be governed with too much severity; we ought to make a prudent use of the means which nature has given us to conduct them.
[...] Let us follow nature, who has given shame to man for his scourge; and let the heaviest part of the punishment be the infamy attending it."

"Some Advantages of a conquered People.

[...] A conquest may destroy pernicious prejudices, and lay, if I may presume to use the expression, the nation under a better genius.
What good might not the Spaniards have done to the Mexicans? They had a mild religion to impart to them; but they filled their heads with a frantic superstition. They might have set slaves at liberty; they made freemen slaves. They might have undeceived them with regard to the abuse of human sacrifices; instead of that they destroyed them.
[...] It is a conquerer's business to repair a part of the mischief he has occasioned. The right, therefore, of conquest I define thus: a necessary, lawful, but unhappy power, which leaves the conqueror under a heavy obligation of repairing the injuries done to humanity."

"It is too much for a nation to be obliged to bear not only with the pride of conquerors, but with their incontenence and indiscretion; these are, without doubt, most grievous and intolerable, as they are the source of infinite outrages."

"The prosperity of states is frequently greater in the insensible transition from one constitution to another than in either of those constitutions. Then it is that all the springs of government are upon the stretch... ."

"[W]hen the Romans aggrandised themselves; when their slaves were no longer the companions of their labour, but the instruments of their luxury and pride; as they then wanted morals, they had need of laws. It was even necessary for these laws to be of the most terrible kind, in order to establish the safety of those cruel masters who lived with their slaves as in the midst of enemies."

"That Everything ought not to be corrected.
Let them but leave us as we are.... and nature will repair whatever is amiss. She has given us a vivacity capable of ofending, and hurrying us beyond the nbounds of respect: this same vivacity is corrected by the politeness it procures, inspiring us with a taste of the world, and, above all, for the conversation of the fair sex.
Let them leave us as we are; our indiscretions joined to our good nature would make the laws which should constrain our sociability not at all proper for us."

"[F]ashion is a subject of importance; by encouraging a trifling turn of mind, it continually increases the branches of its commerce.1 [1. Fable of the Bees]"

"Of the Vanity and Pride of Nations.
Vanity is as advantageous to a government as pride is dangerous. To be convinced of this we need only represent, on the one hand, the numberless benefits which result from vanity, as industry, the arts, fashions, politness, and taste; on the other, the infinite evils which spring from the pride of certain nations, as laziness, poverty, a total neglect of everything- in fine, ... . Laziness is the effect of pride; labour, a consequence of vanity."

"[P]ride, joined to a vast ambition an notions of grandeur, produced such effects among the Romans as are known to all the world."

"All the passions [of a free people] being unrestrained, hatred, envy, jealousy, and an ambitious desire of riches and honours, appears in their extent; were it otherwise, the state would be in the condition of a man weakened by sickness, who is without passions because he is without strength."

"[W]hen an impression of terror has no certain object, it produces only clamour and abuse; it has, however, this good efect, that it puts all the springs of government into motion, and fixes the attention of every citizen.
[...] A people like this, being always in a ferment, are more easily conducted by their passions than by reason, which never produces any great effect in the mind of man; it is therefore easy for those who govern to make them undertake enterprises contrary to their true interests."

"[T]his nation [England], having been formerly subject to an arbitrary power, on many occasions preserves the style of it, in such a manner as to let us frequently see upon the foundation of a free government the form of an absolute monarchy.
[...] [A]s these men who are naturally so proud live much by themselves, they are commonly bashful when they appear among strangers; and we frequently see them behave for a considerable time with an odd mixture of pride and ill-placed shame."

"Men being made to preserve, to nourish, to clothe themselves, and do all the actions of society, religion ought not to give them too contemplative a life.
[...] Penances
ought to be joined with the idea of labour, not with that of idleness... ."